– The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a simple, reliable means for diagnosing PAD. Blood pressure measurements are taken at the arms and ankles using a pencil shaped ultrasound device called a Doppler. A Doppler instrument produces sound waves (not x-rays) and is considered noninvasive because it does not require the use of needles or catheters. The ABI test is simple enough to be performed in any doctor's office or vascular laboratory. Not only is the ABI one of the most reliable tests for PAD
– The carotid IMT test is one tool used by the cardiologists in the preventive cardiology clinic to assess atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) in the main blood vessels of the body. IMT is a new test for the early detection and management of atherosclerosis that is recognized by the American Heart Association. IMT measures the thickness of the inner most layer of the carotid artery. Increased thickness, even without plaque, correlates with a higher risk of heart attack and stroke. Plaque build-up and thickness can be followed over time to assess the effectiveness of diet, exercise and medications in treating the disease.